Surface mining is where the ore or the substances that are going to be extracted are near the surface of the ground. A removal of the vegetative cover and cap rock is carried out. Normally, the overburden is extracted and replaced.
Mining operations are the mining operational processes, which include the stages and procedures that the metal ore undergoes through the system of smelting, refining, screening, and then proceeding along the production line.
Underground mining is where the ore or substances that are going to be extracted are located deep underground, or where there are obstacles of rock layers, barriers of streams or creeks, or other layers that make it difficult or impractical to reach the ore or the subsoil.